This procedure demands a lot of mecical tests, the transplant surgeon will decide on the tests that you will need. People
with diabetes will need more tests for their heart.
Apart from a physical examination, a Chest x-ray, electrocardiogram (EKG or ECG) and an Ultrasound with Doppler examination
to determines the quality of the iliac vessels may be done.
Dental Evaluation, Blood tests, Blood typing, Pulmonary function test, Upper gastrointestinal test (to ensure the patient's
esophagus and stomach are disease free), Lower gastrointestinal test (to ensures that the patient is free of intestinal
abnormalities), Renal function test, serum & creatinine tests, tissue typing, viral tests etc are the typical tests done.
A Mammogram and Pap smear would be done in addition to the above for female recipients.
Histocompatibility tests may include Crossmatch Testing, Tissue Typing and Panel Reactive Antibod. These would determine how
your body will respond to the transplant organ.
The procedure is done under general anesthesia and takes approximately 5 hours.
In a Kidney transplantation procedure a healthy kidney is placed into the body to perform all of the functions that a failing
kidney cannot. The diseased kidneys are not removed unless one has uncontrolled hypertension, repeated infection and backup
of urine into the kidneys.
The kidney is placed commonly in the right or left iliac fossa. In certain cases the the kidney is placed extra-peritoneally
by creating and dissecting a pocket between the peritoneum and the abdominal wall. The bladder is expanded with 200 to 300 ml
of saline containg antibiotic. A midline incision is done from the pubic bone to 5 cm above the umbilicus. The new kidney is
positioned and the blood vessels and urinary bladder are attached. The vein and artery of the new kidney are attached to your
vein and artery.
The new kidney usually begins functioning immediately. Normal functioning levels in the case of liver from a iving donor
typically requires 3 to 5 days. In the case of a Cadaveric donor, it may require 7 to 15 days. Four to seven days
hospitalisation would be required after surgery.
Kidney transplants are a life extending procedure and typically add ten to fifteen years of life to the recipient. In younger
patients life gained is much more.
Risks and Complications
Transplant rejection, Infections and sepsis, Post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder, Imbalances in electrolytes
including calcium and phosphate which can lead to bone problems are among the few complications that can occur. Side effects
of medications may include gastrointestinal inflammation and ulceration of the stomach and esophagus, hirsutism (excessive
hair growth in a male-pattern distribution), hair loss, obesity, acne, diabetes mellitus, hypercholesterolemia etc.
This involves removing a kidney from a healthy living donor and implanting it into a recipient
The donor, who may be a blood relative, spouse or friend, will have extensive medical and psychological evaluations to ensure the lowest possible risk
Their health must also be stable enough to undergo transplantation with excellent chances of success
In deceased donor kidney transplant, the donor may be a victim of an accident or head injury. The donor's heart is still beating, but the brain has stopped functioning. Such a person is considered legally dead, because his or her brain has permanently and irreversibly stopped working. At this point, the donor is usually in an intensive-care unit.
The identity of a deceased donor and circumstances surrounding the person's death are kept confidential.